Transmission Impairment

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Transmission Impairment
« on: June 19, 2020, 02:03:23 PM »

When signals travel through the medium, they tend to deteriorate. This may have many reasons as given:


For the receiver to interpret the data accurately, the signal must be sufficiently strong. When the signal passes through the medium, it tends to get weaker. As it covers distance, it loses strength.


As signal travels through the media, it tends to spread and overlaps. The amount of dispersion depends upon the frequency used.

Delay distortion

Signals are sent over media with pre-defined speed and frequency. If the signal speed and frequency do not match, there are possibilities that signal reaches destination in arbitrary fashion. In digital media, this is very critical that some bits reach earlier than the previously sent ones.


Random disturbance or fluctuation in analog or digital signal is said to be Noise in signal, which may distort the actual information being carried. Noise can be characterized in one of the following class:

Thermal Noise

Heat agitates the electronic conductors of a medium which may introduce noise in the media. Up to a certain level, thermal noise is unavoidable.


When multiple frequencies share a medium, their interference can cause noise in the medium. Intermodulation noise occurs if two different frequencies are sharing a medium and one of them has excessive strength or the component itself is not functioning properly, then the resultant frequency may not be delivered as expected.


This sort of noise happens when a foreign signal enters into the media. This is because signal in one medium affects the signal of second medium.


This noise is introduced because of irregular disturbances such as lightening, electricity, short-circuit, or faulty components. Digital data is mostly affected by this sort of noise.

« Last Edit: June 19, 2020, 02:08:47 PM by mechanic »